Main Page

From HNS Spills E-Learning
Revision as of 21:08, 12 November 2017 by Helena (talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search

Welcome to the Mariner Project "Training package for HNS Spills at sea" E-Learning page. The material was organized by CIIMAR and Action Modulers.

The material is separated in the following sections:

Introduction to Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS)

Copyright Cedre.jpg

The sections below address the hazardous chemicals transported by sea, the chemical spill incidents, the definition of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) and the risks associated with HNS (e.g. the behaviour of chemicals in the marine environment). A brief introduction to the advantage of classifying chemicals according to the behaviour on preparedness and response to chemical spills is also provided.


This chapter is divided into 5 sections:

  1. Hazardous chemicals transported by sea
  2. Chemical spill incidents
  3. Definition of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS)
  4. Risks associated with HNS
    • Behaviour of chemicals in the marine environment
  5. Advantage of classifying chemicals according to the behaviour on preparedness and response to chemical spills


1. Hazardous chemicals transported by sea

Society is highly dependent upon chemicals for myriad applications within health care, pharmaceuticals, household goods and products, water sanitation, energy, agriculture, food preservation and transportation. Therefore, chemicals are undoubtedly essential and contribute substantially to society.

Maritime shipping is a highly efficient option for global transportation of chemicals to society. However, chemicals carried by maritime shipping (e.g. through tankers, container ships and bulk carriers) can have the potential to cause harm to human health and the environment (if spilled). These chemicals can essentially be classified into 2 categories (OPRC-HNS Protocol):

  • Oil i.e. petroleum hydrocarbons;
  • Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) i.e. anything hazardous other than oil.


This course will focus on HNS


Source ITOPF (2014a).png


Maritime transport of HNS

The world maritime transport of HNS has grown considerably in the last few decades, including transportation to, from and within European waters, due to the continuous development of the chemical industry, the need to supply raw materials to this industry and transport high volumes of products from the industries to the customers.

Data indicate that approximately 90% of European Union external trade is transported by sea with estimates indicating:

  • up to 50,000 HNS carried by sea;
  • around 2000 HNS carried on a regular basis.

Furthermore, the International Maritime Organization (IMO)link title estimated over 200 million tonnes of chemicals traded annually by tankers.

figura

PROBLEM: The constant growth in the volume of chemicals that are transported by sea increases the RISK OF ACCIDENTAL SPILLS.






Environmental Impacts

Ecology and Publich Health (e.g. most affected species and toxicological effects).

Environmental Monitoring

Monitoring (e.g. Monitoring Protocols).

Advanced Tools for Preparedness & Response

In the next sections are presented several multidisciplinary approaches to hns spill preparedness and response.

Situational Awareness And Common Operating Picture

The Mariner Platform is a web GIS that integrate multiple information layers and efficiently manage the response to an eventual spill. It provides operational meteorological, hydrodynamics and waves modelling and online on-demand hns ecotoxicology spill.

Integration of Online Databases in Preparedness & Response

Previous HNS Incidents and HNS Products

Modelling Fate & Behaviour of HNS Spills

Modelling Fate with MOHID and Modelling Population with Aquatox

Coastal Vulnerability Mapping

Vulnerability Mapping (e.g. risk management prioritization) and methodology.